Ancient Egyptian 3D model
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. Part of a series on the History of Egypt All Gizah Pyramids.jpg Prehistoric Egypt pre–3150 BC Ancient Egypt Early Dynastic Period 3150–2686 BC Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC 1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC 2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC 3rd Intermediate Period 1069–744 BC Kushite Egypt 744–656 BC Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt 664–525 BC Classical antiquity Achaemenid Egypt 525–404 BC Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt 404–398 BC Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt 398–380 BC Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt 380–343 BC Achaemenid Egypt 343–332 BC Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt 332–30 BC Roman and Byzantine Egypt 30 BC–641 AD Sasanian Egypt 619–629 Middle Ages Rashidun Egypt 641–661 Umayyad Egypt 661–750 Abbasid Egypt 750–935 Tulunid Egypt 868–905 Ikhshidid Egypt 935–969 Fatimid Egypt 969–1171 Ayyubid Egypt 1171–1250 Mamluk Egypt 1250–1517 Early modern Ottoman Egypt 1517–1867 French occupation 1798–1801 Egypt under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882 Khedivate of Egypt 1867–1914 Modern Egypt British occupation 1882–1922 Sultanate of Egypt 1914–1922 Kingdom of Egypt 1922–1953 Republic 1953–present Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt portal vte Dynasties of Ancient Egypt PredynasticProtodynastic Early Period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period New Kingdom Third Intermediate Period First Persian Period Late Period Second Persian Period Ptolemaic Period vte Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer). The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, and the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great. The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra